Mycophenolate Organ Transplant Uses Side Effects Dosage

Mycophenolate Organ Transplant Uses Side Effects Dosage

mycophenolate

Mycophenolate is an immunosuppressant medication used to prevent rejection of transplant organs, particularly the heart, kidney, and liver. It is administered intravenously or orally, typically in combination with cyclosporine and corticosteroids.

Mycophenolate is a prodrug that converts to mycophenolic acid (MPA) in the body. MPA suppresses inflammatory responses by inhibiting T-cell and B-cell proliferation and antibody production. It also inhibits inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH), an enzyme crucial for purine biosynthesis, which is necessary for T-cell and B-cell growth.

MPA also prevents lymphocyte and monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells by inhibiting protein glycosylation. It inhibits leukocyte migration and prevents graft rejection.

Warnings

  • Do not use in patients hypersensitive to mycophenolate or any components of the formulation.
  • Avoid the intravenous formulation if allergic to polysorbate 80.
  • Prescribe/administer mycophenolate only under the care of experienced physicians.
  • Ensure patients receive treatment in facilities with adequate resources.
  • Do not interchange different brands of mycophenolate.
  • Administer IV solution as a slow infusion to reduce the risk of blood clots and vein inflammation.
  • Increased susceptibility to infections, including opportunistic infections, sepsis, and fatal infections, may occur due to immunosuppression.
  • Mycophenolate increases the risk of skin cancers and lymphoma.
  • Pregnancy loss and fetal malformations can result from mycophenolate use. Screen women for pregnancy before therapy and advise them to use effective contraception.

Side Effects

Common side effects of mycophenolate include:

  • High or low blood pressure
  • Rapid heart rate
  • Swelling
  • Blood clot formation
  • High blood sugar
  • High cholesterol level
  • High uric acid level
  • High or low blood potassium levels
  • Low calcium, magnesium, and phosphates
  • Increased lactate dehydrogenase enzyme
  • Acidosis
  • Weight loss
  • Abdominal pain, constipation, diarrhea, indigestion, nausea, vomiting, gas, abdominal distension
  • Gastroesophageal reflux disease, reduced appetite, esophagus and oral inflammation
  • Oral Candida infection, gum overgrowth, gastritis, gastric ulcer, gastrointestinal hemorrhage
  • Urinary tract infection, blood in the urine, urinary retention, kidney problems
  • Elevated liver enzymes
  • Cough, shortness of breath, fluid around lungs, pneumonia
  • Nose and throat inflammation, sinus inflammation
  • Skin rash, cellulitis, discoloration of skin, itching, acne, neoplasms
  • Blood disorders
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Less common side effects of mycophenolate include:

  • Loss of appetite, colon inflammation, hemorrhagic colitis and gastritis
  • Pancreatitis, inflammation of abdominal lining, gastrointestinal perforation
  • Duodenal and esophageal ulcers, oral ulcers, dry mouth
  • Mucocutaneous candidiasis
  • Ascites, endocarditis, venous thrombosis, throat inflammation
  • Wheezing, bronchial tube thickening, pulmonary diseases
  • Tuberculosis, protozoal and mycobacterial infections
  • Hepatitis C, reactivation of hepatitis B virus
  • Hypersensitivity reactions, hair loss, bone marrow failure
  • Low granulocyte and lymphocyte counts, lymph node swelling
  • Low antibody levels, Kapasi sarcoma, brain infections, bone infection
  • Acute inflammatory syndrome

Contact your doctor immediately if you experience serious symptoms such as heart issues, severe headache, nervous system reactions, or serious eye symptoms while using this drug. Report side effects or health problems to the FDA.

Dosages

Capsule

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