Enzalutamide Prostate Cancer Treatment Uses Side Effects

Enzalutamide Prostate Cancer Treatment Uses Side Effects

enzalutamide

Enzalutamide is an anticancer medication used to treat prostate cancer in adult males. Prostate cancer is the second most diagnosed solid cancer in males and the second leading cause of male cancer deaths.

The prostate gland is responsible for producing seminal fluid and maintaining the balance of male sex hormones. However, in the case of prostate cancer, androgens stimulate the growth of cancer cells. Enzalutamide inhibits the interaction between androgen receptors and androgens, preventing the proliferation of cancerous prostate cells.

Enzalutamide is FDA-approved for the treatment of adult males with:

  • Castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC)
  • Metastatic castration-sensitive prostate cancer (mCSPC)
  • Non-metastatic castration-sensitive prostate cancer (nmCSPC) with high risk for metastasis (high-risk BCR)

Warnings

  • Seizures have been reported in patients treated with enzalutamide, particularly in those with predisposing factors such as a past history of seizure or brain injury.
  • Hypersensitivity reactions may occur, and patients should seek medical care immediately.
  • Patients should be monitored for signs of ischemic heart disease and receive optimal management of cardiovascular risk factors.

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Side Effects

Common side effects of enzalutamide include fatigue, weakness, decreased hemoglobin level, decreased neutrophil count, decreased white blood cell count, high blood glucose level, and electrolyte disturbances.

Less common side effects include vomiting and hypersensitivity reactions such as facial, tongue, lip, or throat swelling. Severe reactions like Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis are also possible.

Seek immediate medical attention for serious symptoms such as heart abnormalities, severe neurological symptoms, or serious eye symptoms.

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This is not a complete list of side effects. Consult your doctor for more information or to report any adverse reactions.

Dosage

Capsule

Tablet

Adult:

Prostate Cancer

  • 160 mg orally once daily
  • Combination therapy with a gonadotropic-releasing hormone analog or bilateral orchiectomy is recommended for some patients.
  • Treatment of nmCSPC with high-risk BCR may be suspended and reinitiated based on PSA levels.

Dosage Modifications

Dosage adjustments may be needed for drug-related toxicities or in the presence of certain inhibitors or inducers.

Special Populations

Renal impairment and hepatic impairment do not generally require dosage adjustments.

Pediatric:

Safety and efficacy have not been established in children.

Drug Interactions

Inform your doctor about all medications you are taking to avoid potential interactions. Enzalutamide has significant interactions with numerous drugs.

Pregnancy and Breastfeeding

Enzalutamide is not intended for use in women. It can cause fetal harm and impair male fertility. Effects on breastfeeding are unknown.

Additional Information

Take enzalutamide as directed. Be aware of the increased risk of seizures and other potential side effects. Subscribe to MedicineNet’s Cancer Report Newsletter for updates and information.

Summary

Enzalutamide is an effective treatment for prostate cancer in adult males. Common side effects include fatigue, weakness, decreased blood counts, electrolyte disturbances, and high blood glucose levels.

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