Dicloxacillin Antibiotic Uses Side Effects Dosage

Dicloxacillin Antibiotic Uses Side Effects Dosage

dicloxacillin

Dicloxacillin is a penicillin antibiotic used to treat bacterial infections caused by staphylococci organisms that produce penicillinase. It is a second-generation oral penicillin that is resistant to penicillinase enzymes. Dicloxacillin kills bacteria by preventing cell wall synthesis.

Like other penicillins, dicloxacillin contains a beta-lactam ring that blocks penicillin-binding proteins, essential for the synthesis of peptidoglycan, a component that provides stability to the bacterial cell wall. Blocking peptidoglycan synthesis leads to the rupture of the cell wall and bacterial death.

Warnings

  • Do not use dicloxacillin if you have a history of hypersensitivity reactions to any penicillin or any component of the formulation.
  • Serious allergic reactions and fatal hypersensitivity reactions have been reported in some patients using dicloxacillin. Patients with a history of hypersensitivity to penicillin may also have such reactions with a cephalosporin antibiotic. Obtain a patient’s drug and allergy history before starting treatment with dicloxacillin. Discontinue dicloxacillin if allergic reactions occur and provide immediate supportive treatment, including antihistamines, corticosteroids, pressor amines, and mechanical ventilation if necessary.

Side Effects

Common side effects of dicloxacillin include:

  • Immediate allergic reactions (20 minutes to 48 hours) such as hives, itching, fever, swelling beneath the skin, voice box spasm, laryngeal edema, bronchospasm, low blood pressure, vascular collapse, and rarely, death.
  • Skin rashes, urticaria, fever, malaise, abdominal pain, myalgia, and arthralgia.

Call your doctor immediately if you experience symptoms or serious side effects such as fast,pounding heartbeats, fluttering in your chest, shortness of breath, sudden dizziness, severe headache, confusion, slurred speech, severe weakness, vomiting, loss of coordination, feeling unsteady, severe nervous system reaction with stiff muscles, high fever, sweating, confusion, fast or uneven heartbeats, tremors, feeling like you might pass out, or serious eye symptoms such as blurred vision, tunnel vision, eye pain or swelling, or seeing halos around lights.

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This is not a complete list of side effects or adverse reactions. Call your doctor for medical advice or report side effects to the FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.

QUESTION

Dosages of dicloxacillin

Capsule

  • 250 mg (generic)
  • 500 mg (generic)

Adult:

Infections

  • Indicated for Staphylococcus aureus infections
  • 125-500 mg orally once every 6 hours
  • Take on empty stomach
  • Total dosage reduction should be considered if not studied

Pediatric:

Infections

  • Indicated for Staphylococcus aureus infections
  • Children weighing below 40 kg: 12.5-25 mg/kg/day orally divided once every 6 hours
  • Severe infection: 50-100 mg/kg/day orally divided once every 6 hours
  • Children weighing 40 kg or above: 125-500 mg orally once every 6 hours
  • Take on empty stomach

Overdose

Dicloxacillin overdose may cause irritation, rash, labored breathing, hives, itching, wheezing, nausea, chills, and fever. It should be treated with discontinuation of the drug and symptom relief.

Drug Interactions

Inform your doctor of all medications you are currently taking. Never start, stop, or change the dosage of any medication without your doctor’s recommendation.

  • Dicloxacillin has no severe interactions with other drugs.
  • Serious interactions of dicloxacillin include BCG vaccine live, cholera vaccine, demeclocycline, doxycycline, microbiota oral, minocycline, omadacycline, pacritinib, sarecycline, tetracycline, and typhoid vaccine live. It also interacts with azithromycin, aztreonam, chloramphenicol, clarithromycin, colestipol, erythromycin base, erythromycin ethylsuccinate, erythromycin lactobionate, erythromycin stearate, nitazoxanide, and pyridoxine.

The above drug interactions are not exhaustive. For more information, visit the RxList Drug Interaction Checker.

Always inform your doctor of all medications you use and keep a list of them. Check with your doctor if you have any questions about the medication.

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Pregnancy and Breastfeeding

  • Penicillins have not shown evidence of fetal harm in animal studies and human experience. However, there are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Dicloxacillin should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed.
  • Penicillins are present in breast milk. Use caution while breastfeeding.

Additional Information

  • Take dicloxacillin as instructed.
  • Complete the prescribed antibiotic therapy; do not skip doses or discontinue treatment if you feel better. It can reduce the effectiveness of treatment and lead to the development of drug-resistant bacteria.
  • Do not take penicillin if you had a severe reaction to it in the past and inform your physician of your drug and allergy history.
  • Do not take additional medications without checking with your physician, including nonprescription drugs.
  • Report any unusual symptoms to your physician, including shortness of breath, wheezing, skin rash, mouth irritation, black tongue, sore throat, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, fever, swollen joints, or unusual bleeding or bruising.
  • Store dicloxacillin safely out of reach of children.
  • In case of overdose, seek medical help or contact Poison Control.

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Summary

Dicloxacillin is a penicillin antibiotic used to treat bacterial infections caused by staphylococci organisms that produce penicillinase. Common side effects include immediate allergic reactions, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, oral inflammation, black and hairy tongue, colon inflammation, elevated liver enzymes, low red blood cell count, vaginal inflammation, kidney inflammation, and seizures.

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